Micronutrient: Vitamin A

Type of Papers: Reports completed by expert consultations and published by the World Health Organization jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

Note: Two WHO reports were summarized together as they contain much of the same information. See references below.


Prevalence of Deficiency:

Risk Factors for Deficiency:

Biochemical Indicators:

Dietary Sources and Bioavailability:

Recommended Nutrient Intakes (µg RE/day): There are no recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) for vitamin A due to a lack of adequate data; however, the World Health Organization has estimated mean requirements for vitamin A, and the following values are estimated to be similar to an RNI.

The RNI for vitamin A [µg retinol equivalents (RE)/day]:


Recommended Safe Intake

0-6 months


7-12 months


1-3 years


Upper Limits:

Effective Interventions:

Health Consequences of Deficiency and Benefits of Intervention:


Vitamin A. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation on human vitamin and mineral requirements, Bangkok, Thailand, 21–30 September 1998. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004:17-44.

Allen LH, De Benoist B, Dary O, Hurrell R, eds. Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2006: 48-51, 111-117.